Trương Thoa

Ca sĩ bán thuốc trị yếu sinh lý, nghệ sĩ bán thuốc cao đơn hoàn tán… Người nổi tiếng đã dùng hình ảnh, tên tuổi của mình để quảng bá cho những sản phẩm thuốc Đông Tây kim cổ trên mạng xã hội khá phố biến hiện nay… Khán giả tin vào “thần tượng” của mình mà không quan tâm đến thuốc có công dụng đã trở thành “hiện tượng” phổ biến.

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Giá của người nổi tiếng

Đã có nhiều khán giả tin vào sự quảng bá của thần tượng của mình mà mua các loại thuốc về sử dụng mà lâm vào tình trạng tiền mất tật mang. Họ tin hoàn toàn vào thần tượng của họ. Khi có sự cố thì đương nhiên thần tượng trong họ cũng sụp đổ. Sự tổn thất về vật chất và tinh thần ở cả hai phía khi xảy ra sự cố, chỉ có đơn vị bán hàng được hưởng lợi.

Người nổi tiếng trở thành đại sứ thương hiệu, bán hàng livestream trên facebook cho các doanh nghiệp hiện nay khá phổ biến. Người nổi tiếng bán hàng rất hiệu quả, càng nổi tiếng càng bán chạy. Đây được xem là bán cả niềm tin của người hâm mộ. Nhiều người thừa nhận vì tin vào người nổi tiếng mới mua chứ không phải tin vào nhãn hiệu sản phẩm hay đơn vị sản xuất.

Có rất nhiều vụ việc gần đây liên quan đến những lô hàng kém chất lượng, không rõ nguồn gốc xuất xứ có giá trị hàng chục tỷ đồng được rao bán trên mạng xã hội.  Và được những người nổi tiếng giới thiệu đến với người tiêu dùng đã làm dấy lên trong dư luận về trách nhiệm những đại sứ thương hiệu ra sao trước chất lượng sản phẩm. Nhiều người thì cho rằng chính người nổi tiếng cũng là nạn nhân khi mà những vụ việc này phát giác.

Với sự quảng bá của người nổi tiếng cho những sản phẩm mỹ phẩm mà bị nghi là hàng giả, không rõ có nguồn gốc thì giá trị thương hiệu của họ cũng không còn. Đặc biệt, người nổi tiếng chia sẻ về thuốc chữa bệnh không được sự kiểm soát của cơ quan Nhà nước có thẩm quyền sẽ gây hậu quả nghiêm trọng với người tiêu dùng. Trong khi những clip chia sẻ này không phải tuân thủ theo quy định về pháp luật quảng cáo.

Có vi phạm pháp luật quảng cáo?

Căn cứ tại Khoản 8 Điều 2 Luật Quảng cáo 2012, hành vi của những người nổi tiếng này được xác định là: “Người chuyển tải sản phẩm quảng cáo là người trực tiếp đưa các sản phẩm quảng cáo đến công chúng hoặc thể hiện sản phẩm quảng cáo trên người thông qua hình thức mặc, treo, gắn, dán, vẽ hoặc các hình thức tương tự”. Và nhờ tên tuổi với hàng nghìn lượt theo dõi ở trên mạng xã hội facebook các sản phẩm kém chất lượng, đã nhanh chóng tới tay người tiêu dùng và rất nhiều người trong số họ phải chịu hậu quả từ việc tin vào người nổi tiếng cũng như là tin vào những lời quảng cáo đáng hấp dẫn đó. Vậy khi ai đó trở thành gương mặt đại diện cho một thương hiệu “rởm” như vậy, họ có phải chịu trách nhiệm hay không? Bởi vì rất nhiều người mua không phải tin vào công ty sản xuất ra sản phẩm, mà tin vào lời quảng cáo của chính những người nổi tiếng.

Khi đã ký kết một hợp đồng quảng cáo (cam kết dân sự, một thỏa ước dân sự), người nổi tiếng chắc chắn phải biết được mức độ liên quan của mình, phải lường được hậu quả của hành vi ấy. Do vậy nếu nói họ không có liên quan gì ở góc độ nào đấy thì cho thấy cách thực hiện hợp đồng quá lỏng lẻo và cũng là lời lý giải khó có thể chấp nhận được.

Đối với những người nghệ sĩ, tác giả cho rằng đây là nghề nghiệp mang tính đặc thù gắn liền giá trị bản thân đối với sự yêu mến từ công chúng. Thiết nghĩ, họ hoàn toàn có quyền được lựa chọn và được đưa ra những cái yêu cầu đối với nhãn hàng để bảo đảm chất lượng đến tay người tiêu dùng; cũng như là nhãn hàng đưa ra yêu cầu đối với nghệ sĩ, điều này mang tính cốt lõi và quyết định đến hợp đồng.

Hiện nay, chưa có bất kỳ quy định nào ràng buộc trách nhiệm đối với những người “truyền tải sản phẩm quảng cáo” không rõ nguồn gốc, kém chất lượng. Tại Nghị định 158/2013/NĐ-CP ngày 12/11/2013 quy định xử phạt hành chính trong lĩnh vực văn hóa, thể thao, du lịch và quảng cáo cũng không quy định xử phạt đối với những người truyền tải thông điệp quảng cáo.

Tuy nhiên, về mặt dân sự có thể kiện đòi bồi thường thiệt hại ngoài hợp đồng, trong trường hợp có đầy đủ chứng cứ xác định những người nổi tiếng đã biết rõ sản phẩm mà mình quảng cáo không đảm bảo về chất lượng nhưng vì lợi ích cá nhân, vẫn cố tình tham gia quảng cáo và nhận làm đại sứ thì sẽ phải liên đới chịu trách nhiệm với bên sản xuất kinh doanh buôn bán sản phẩm đó.

Trên thực tế, cho dù các cơ quan chức năng có chứng minh được các sản phẩm đã quảng cáo là hàng giả, hàng nhái, hàng kém chất lượng. Thì việc xử lý người nổi tiếng đã quảng cáo cho sản phẩm gặp nhiều khó khăn. Vì cần phải xem xét, họ đã cấu kết với doanh nghiệp sản xuất buôn bán hàng giả hàng kém chất lượng như thế nào? Ví dụ như là họ đã hưởng lợi được bao nhiêu phần trăm, tỷ lệ phần trăm trong sản phẩm họ bán.

Bản thân pháp luật không quy định họ bắt buộc phải biết trước, khi họ giới thiệu sản phẩm đến với người tiêu dùng. Đấy cũng là một kẽ hở mà pháp luật chưa quy định để đảm bảo quyền lợi của người tiêu dùng. Thiếu cơ chế pháp lý để xử lý những quảng cáo không đúng sự thật sản phẩm kém chất lượng, đã kiến cho người tiêu dùng mất niềm tin ảnh hưởng nghiêm trọng đến sức khỏe.

Đây là bài học kinh nghiệm với những người nổi tiếng khi làm đại sứ quảng bá thương hiệu cho nhãn hàng, sản phẩm. Ngoài việc tìm hiểu sản phẩm một cách rõ ràng, sản phẩm đó được chiết xuất từ gì? Được sản xuất từ đâu? Công dụng của nó ra làm sao, điều quan trọng hơn cả phải có một ekip thực hiện chuyên nghiệp khi đặt bút ký hợp đồng đối với doanh nghiệp cần có những chuyên gia hỗ trợ tư vấn.

Đối với người tiêu dùng, bản thân phải là người tiêu dùng thông minh phải tìm hiểu kỹ trước khi chọn mua sản phẩm nào đó không phải cái gì người nổi tiếng nói là đúng là tốt mà đó chỉ là một kênh thông tin tham khảo mà thôi.

Nguồn: Legalguru.vn

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