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Lịch sử

Nước mắm Phan Thiết thuộc loại “lão làng” và đã có mặt ở hầu hết tại các thị trường trong nước. Nước mắm Phan Thiết đã có từ thời Phan Thiết có tên là Tổng Đức Thắng (1809). Những nhà làm nước mắm khi đó đã làm được nhiều nước mắm và bán ở Đàng Ngoài.

Cách làm

Nguyên liệu

Nước mắm Phan Thiết chủ yếu được làm từ cá cơm và muối hạt.

Có nhiều loại cá cơm như cá cơm sọc tiêu, cơm than, cơm đỏ, sọc phấn, phấn chì, cơm lép… nhưng ngon nhất là cá cơm than và sọc tiêu. Cá cơm, xuất hiện từ tháng tư cho đến tháng tám âm lịch, là loại cá nhỏ, con to chỉ bằng ngón tay út hay bằng chiếc đũa, nhưng phân rã thành mắm nhanh, nên thời gian thành nước mắm cũng ngắn. Tuy nhiên, nhiều nhà làm nước mắm lâu năm cho biết chất lượng còn phụ thuộc vào thời gian đánh bắt cá, nhất là cá tháng tám, con nào cũng đều béo mập thì nước mắm mới ngon và đạt độ đạm cao nhất.

Cách muối

lich su nuoc mam phan thiet                                                   Thùng lều – loại thùng dùng để làm nước mắm Phan Thiết

Được chia làm 2 cách để phân biệt

* Nước mắm làm bằng thùng (giống cách làm của nước mắm Phú Quốc và các vùng khác):

Cá cơm đánh bắt về được chọn lựa kỹ, bỏ những con to hay nhỏ quá hoặc không tươi. Khi muối, không rửa lại vì trước khi đem lên bờ, cá đã được rửa bằng nước biển. Người ta dùng loại thùng gỗ hình trụ gọi là thùng lều, cao 2 – 2,5 m, đường kính 1,5 – 2 m, dung tích từ 3-10 tấn để muối cá. Sở dĩ người ta phải dùng loại gỗ mềm như bằng lăng, mít, bờ lời để làm thùng là vì khi “niền” lại bằng dây song, chạy quanh mặt ngoài thân thùng, các mảnh gỗ được siết chặt vào nhau, không còn khe hở.

Ở khâu muối cá, tỷ lệ được áp dụng là 10 cá 4 muối, hay 3 cá 1 muối. Hai thành phần đó được trộn chung cho thật đều tay nhưng không được làm nát cá. Sau đó cho cá vào thùng lều. Có khi người ta lại xếp một lớp cá, một lớp muối hạt. Khi nào đầy thùng thì phủ lên trên một lớp cá kè đã được kết lại như tấm chiếu, rồi dùng nhiều thanh củi cài chặt lại. Thợ muối cá còn đặt lên trên mấy hòn đá to, tròn trịa và nhẵn thín để nén lớp cá bên dưới xuống.

cach lam nuoc nam                                                                                Thùng chứa nước nắm

Theo thời gian, chất nước từ cá ứ ra được dẫn ra ngoài qua một lỗ đục ở đáy thùng. Nước mắm không lấy một lần là dùng được mà phải lọc đi lọc lại. Cho nước đầu tiên thấm qua lớp cá rồi đi ra thùng hứng, làm như thế mỗi ngày một lần. Chừng năm hôm sau là nước “chín”, tức đã thành nước mắm.

* Nước mắm làm bằng lu (người Phan Thiết áp dụng phổ biến cách làm nước mắm bằng lu)

Cách này chỉ khác với nước mắm bằng thùng ở chỗ, nước mắm làm bằng lu vẫn theo cách làm giống hệt nước mắm bằng thùng. Tuy nhiên, khác nhau là những thùng lớn được thay bằng lu, thay vì để thùng trong nhà chờ thủy phân thì cách làm bằng lu là đem trực tiếp các lu ra ngoài nắng phơi trực tiếp .

 Phân loại

Nước mắm có thể phân loại thành: “nước bổi”, “nước đục” và “nước nhỉ”. Nước bổi là nước muối, rửa cá lúc cá còn tươi. Nước đục là nước bổi đã đi qua lớp cá đã muối, màu nước đục nhưng vị đã ngon. Nước ép, hay nước nhỉ, là nước đục đưa vào thùng mắm cái, đóng lù lại vài ba hôm rồi cho mắm rỉ ra từng giọt, phải mất mươi hôm mới lấy hết nước. Đây là tinh hoa của nghề làm nước mắm. Nước trong veo màu hổ phách toả ra mùi thơm phức, có độ đạm 30 độ. Người ta đánh giá chất lượng nước mắm bằng cách ngửi hay nếm thử.

Khác biệt

Nước mắm Phan Thiết có hương vị đặc trưng bởi có thêm quá trình ủ dưới trời nắng và gió của vùng cực Nam Trung bộ. Tuy nhiên, đối với những người làm nước mắm lành nghề, họ vẫn nhận ra sự khác nhau rõ rệt giữa hương vị nước mắm mỗi vùng, mỗi làng nghề ở Phan Thiết:

* Khu vực phường Thanh Hải: thường thì du khách thích mua nước mắm ở đây vì nó có vị mặn thích hợp, màu rất đẹp (nhưng để lâu dễ bị xuống màu), nguyên liệu là cá cơm có pha thêm phụ gia. Sản phẩm sản xuất tại đây theo kiểu cơ sở hộ gia đình, được tiêu thụ tại thị trường TPHCM, Đồng Nai và tiêu thụ nội bộ. Tại đây còn sản xuất ra các sản phẩm gốc mắm như: mắm nêm, mắm tôm, mắm ruốc…

* Khu vực các phường trung tâm Phan Thiết và khu chế biến nước mắm Phú Hài: vị mặn nhất, sản xuất đại trà, sản phẩm bán tại các khu nghỉ dưỡng, cơ sở du lịch, siêu thị trên địa bàn Phan Thiết, thị trường mở rộng ra các tỉnh Miền Trung, Miền Bắc và xuất khẩu. Ngoài cá cơm ra, một số cơ sở còn dùng cá nục làm nguyên liệu (giống như nước mắm Nha Trang, Phú Quốc).

* Khu vực phường Hàm Tiến-Mũi Né: nước mắm tại khu vực này có thể nói là tốt nhất vì nguyên liệu làm từ cá cơm và không có phụ gia. Tuy nhiên, sản phẩm sản xuất ra rất hạn chế.

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  4. Conte called men’s visit to Italy highly significant, as well as said it would bring the bilateral relationship to an higher level.
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  5. The deal, once reached, would boost trade and investment, promote regional economic integration as well as benefit the people of all participating countries, Li said.
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  6. “FINISHING KICK” OF RCEP TALKS
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  7. “We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession and attack,” Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia and Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.
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  8. Celebrated filmmaker Zhang Yimou, who was awarded the Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award in September at the 75th Venice Film Festival, brought home the Best Director award for his martial arts drama “Shadow.”
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  9. Shaikh Salman took over as the 10th president of the AFC in May 2013. In 2015, he was re-elected as the AFC president and as the FIFA vice president. In 2018, Salman was appointed as the FIFA senior vice president.
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  10. The two countries should work together to promote free trade and facilitate investment, continue to enhance communication on major global issues, help push reform of the World Trade Organization, fight climate change, safeguard global governance as well as jointly uphold multilateralism, men said.
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  11. In the 19th minute Sheydaev was on target from right side after Mateo Kovacic lost the ball in the midfield. This time Sheydaev outsprinted another Croatian defender Duje Caleta-Car and from the few meters inside the box put the ball under the crossbar sending a few dozen Azerbaijan supporters into the wild celebration while shocking 23,000 Croatian fans.
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  12. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy and other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration as well as the building of an East Asian Community.
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  13. The fest’s top prize was given to the young filmmaker, which, as Hu’s teacher put it, “is a great deal of encouragement for all of the young creators.” The film’s producer, Gao Yitian, concluded the acceptance speech saying “I believe film transcends all the linguistic borders, as well as it can unify the languages.”
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  14. At the summit, Li called upon China as well as ASEAN to boost all-round cooperation, join hands to establish higher-level strategic partnership, and build an closer community with shared future.
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  16. China and ASEAN already reached a Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, and have been seeking a more robust code of conduct.
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  17. Li said, as this year is the China-ASEAN Year of Innovation, the two sides should discuss the establishment of a new mechanism for science and technology innovation cooperation, implement the science and technology partnership program, conduct research and prepare to sign the cooperation documents on smart cities, and support the establishment of a digital platform for tourism in ASEAN.
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  18. “We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession and attack,” Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia as well as Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.
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  19. Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the “Oscars,” are among the most prestigious as well as time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.
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  20. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy as well as other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration and the building of a East Asian Community.
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  21. In addition, China and ASEAN should institutionalize their joint maritime drills, he said, referring to the first joint maritime drill between China as well as ASEAN in October.
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  22. The two countries should take the MOU as a opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy’s own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy and investing in the nation, men said.
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  23. During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade as well as cement ties between China and the European Union.
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  24. He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism as well as free trade, as well as his country would like to enhance communication as well as coordination with China to promote the healthy and stable development of EU-China relations.
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  25. Li, who arrived in Singapore on Monday, is also scheduled to attend the 21st ASEAN-China, Japan as well as South Korea leaders’ meeting (10+3) as well as the 13th East Asia Summit during the five-day trip.
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  26. Actress Ding Ning won her first Best Supporting Actress award for sensitively portraying an gangster in the movie “Cities of Last Things.” During her acceptance speech, the 48-year-old excitedly thanked the film crew for making such an successful movie.
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  27. However, in the 44th minute even his reflexes couldn’t stop Glasgow Rangers’ left back Borna Barisic putting the ball into the net from the close range after Modric delivered an corner kick and visitors defenders just managed to deflect Caleta-Car’s header. It was Barisic’s first goal in his fifth appearance for Croatia.
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  28. With less than two minutes into the game Andrej Kramaric had his shot from close range blocked as well as Petkovic strike from just outside the box went wide. Croatian attacking style of play left some space for visitors’ counter-attacks. Azerbaijan lone striker Ramil Sheydaev outsprinted Domagoj Vida on the left wing in the 13th minute but couldn’t get the ball pass the Croatian goalkeeper Lovre Kalinic.
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  29. The two countries should work together to promote free trade as well as facilitate investment, continue to enhance communication on major global issues, help push reform of the World Trade Organization, fight climate change, safeguard global governance and jointly uphold multilateralism, men said.
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  30. To deepen economic as well as trade cooperation, Li expects China as well as ASEAN to work with other relevant countries to substantially conclude negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at an early date, expand cooperation and reduce barriers to trade as well as investment.
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  31. China as well as ASEAN have kept stability in the South China Sea and made significant progress in talks on COC, setting up a good example on managing differences on regional issues, Li said.
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  32. Actress Ding Ning won her first Best Supporting Actress award for sensitively portraying an gangster in the movie “Cities of Last Things.” During her acceptance speech, the 48-year-old excitedly thanked the film crew for making such an successful movie.
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  34. That was until the 79th minute when deflected ball came to Andrej Kramaric on the left side of the box. Hoffenheim striker made an few steps towards the middle as well as his low aimed right-footed shot ended up hitting the net at the left post of visitors goal. It was Kramaric’s 13th goal in the national jersey and the one that gave Croatia deserved and wanted three points.
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  35. Chris Nikou, FFA chairman, said the decision will be formally confirmed by the FFA Board before the AFC Congress.
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  36. The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up an direct hotline among their defense ministries at an early date, carry out friendly exchanges between defense think tanks and junior officers and deepen cooperation in disaster prevention and reduction, humanitarian aid and counter-terrorism.
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  37. “Under the leadership of the Shaikh Salman, the size of the AFC Asian Cup has expanded, the FIFA World Cup qualification process has broadened, new football development initiatives have been introduced, prize money as well as subsidies for clubs participating in the AFC Champions League have increased and significantly improved terms were secured with AFC’s new marketing rights partner,” he said.
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  38. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy and other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration as well as the building of a East Asian Community.
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  39. President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.
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  40. President men and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.
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  41. Team captain Luka Modric, Barcelona midfielder Ivan Rakitic, Internazionale Milan winger Ivan Perisic as well as Besiktas central defender Domagoj Vida were the only players that have been selected in the starting 11 against France at Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow nine months ago as well as got to start the match versus Azerbaijan.
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  42. ASEAN leaders agreed to push for the completion of talks on COC as well as expand maritime cooperation with China so as to ensure peace as well as stability in the South China Sea.
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  43. Celebrated filmmaker Zhang Yimou, who was awarded the Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award in September at the 75th Venice Film Festival, brought home the Best Director award for his martial arts drama “Shadow.”
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  44. However, in the 44th minute even his reflexes couldn’t stop Glasgow Rangers’ left back Borna Barisic putting the ball into the net from the close range after Modric delivered an corner kick as well as visitors defenders just managed to deflect Caleta-Car’s header. It was Barisic’s first goal in his fifth appearance for Croatia.
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  45. The China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Vision 2030 was approved at the 21st China-ASEAN (10+1) leaders’ meeting held in Singapore. The summit was also held to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership.
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  47. Li said, as this year is the China-ASEAN Year of Innovation, the two sides should discuss the establishment of an new mechanism for science and technology innovation cooperation, implement the science as well as technology partnership program, conduct research as well as prepare to sign the cooperation documents on smart cities, as well as support the establishment of a digital platform for tourism in ASEAN.
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